Worker self-management (or autogestion) is a form of workplace decision-making in which the workers themselves agree on choices (for issues like customer care, general production methods, scheduling, division of labour etc.) instead of the traditional authoritative supervisor telling workers what to do, how to do it and where to do it. Examples of such self-management include the Spanish Revolution during the Spanish Civil War, Titoist Yugoslavia, the "recovered factories" movement in Argentina (in Spanish, fábrica recuperada), the LIP factory in France in the 1970s, the Mondragón Cooperative Corporation which is the Basque Country's largest corporation, US AK Press, etc.
In Argentina, workers took over control of the firm, commonly after intentional bankruptcy by the management or after a factory occupation to prevent the risk of a lock out. The Spanish verb recuperar means not only "to get back", "to take back" or "to reclaim" but also "to put back into good condition". Although initially referring to industrial facilities, the term may be extensive to businesses other than factories (i.e. Hotel Bauen in Buenos Aires).
English-language coverage of this phenomenon employs several different translations of the original Spanish expression besides recovered factory. Commonly attested ones are recuperated factory, reclaimed factory, and worker-run factory. It is also known as "autogestion," which comes from the French word designing self-management (whether in factories or in popular education systems or anywhere else).
Workers' self-management is often the decision-making model used in co-operative economic arrangements such as worker cooperatives, workers' councils, and in participatory economics, and similar arrangements where the workplace operates without a boss.
Critics argue that consulting all employees for every tiny issue is time consuming, inefficient and thus ineffective. However, as seen in real world examples, only large-scale decisions are made by all employees during a council meeting and small decisions are made by those implementing them while coordinating with the rest and following more general agreements.
Autogestion was first theorized by Pierre-Joseph Proudhon during the first part of the 19th century. It then became a primary component of trade unions organizations, in particular concerning revolutionary syndicalism beginning in late 19th century France and guild socialism in early 20th century Britain, both movements collapsing in the early 1920s. French trade-union CFDT ("Confédération Française Démocratique du Travail") included worker self-management in its 1970 program, before abandoning it afterward. The ideas of workers' self-management are still advanced by the IWW (Industrial Workers of the World) since its founding in 1905 in the United States.
The most complete experience of workers' self-management took place during the Spanish Revolution (1936-1939). In the 1950s, Titoist Yugoslavia claimed during the Cold War to choose a socialist autogestion way, which led to his break with Moscow. The economy of Yugoslavia was organized according to the theories of Tito and - more directly - Edvard Kardelj. A great contribution to the theory of Yugoslavia's type of socialism (radničko samoupravljanje) was given by Croatian scientist Branko Horvat. With the exception of a recession in the mid-1960s, the country's economy prospered formidably under Titoist Socialism. Unemployment was low, the education level of the work force steadily increased and the life expectancy (which was about 72 years) and living standards of Yugoslav citizens was almost equal to the life expectancy and living standards of citizens of “western” capitalist countries such as the United states. Due to Yugoslavia's neutrality and its leading role in the Non-Aligned Movement, Yugoslav companies exported to both Western and Eastern markets. Yugoslav companies carried out construction of numerous major infrastructural and industrial projects in Africa, Europe and Asia.
Following May 68 in France, Lip factory, a clockwork factory based in Besançon, was self-managed starting in 1973, after the management's decision to liquidate it. The LIP experience was an emblematic social conflict of post-68 in France. CFDT (the CCT as it was referred to in Northern Spain),trade-unionist Charles Piaget led the strike allowing workers to claim the means of production. The Unified Socialist Party (PSU), which included former Radical Pierre Mendès-France, was in favour of autogestion or self-management.
In the 1970s, the Spanish Legitimist Carlist movement split among the supporters of Don Carlos Hugo's new Carlist Party, confederalist and autogestionary, and his brother Sixto Enrique de Borbón's Traditionalist Communion, extreme-right.
South America Edit
In October 2005 the first Encuentro Latinoamericano de Empresas Recuperadas ("Latin American Encounter of Recovered Companies") took place in Caracas, Venezuela, with representatives of 263 such companies from different countries living through similar economical and social situations. The meeting had, as its main outcome, the Compromiso de Caracas (Caracas' Commitment); a vindicating text of the movement.
Throughout the 1990s in Argentina's southern province of Neuquén, drastic economic and political events occurred where the citizens ultimately rose up. Although the first shift occurred in a single factory, bosses were progressively fired throughout the province so that by 2005 the workers of the province controlled most of the factories.
In the wake of the 2001 economic crisis, about 200 Argentine companies were "recovered" by their workers and turned into co-operatives. Prominent examples include the Brukman factory, the Hotel Bauen and FaSinPat (formerly known as Zanon). As of 2005, about 15,000 Argentine workers run recovered factories.
The phenomenon of fabricas recuperadas ("recovered factories") is not new in Argentina. Rather, such social movements were completely dismantled during the so-called "Dirty War" in the 1970s. Thus, during Héctor Cámpora's first months of government (May-July 1973), a rather moderate and left-wing Peronist, approximately 600 social conflicts, strikes and factory occupations had taken place.
Many recovered factories are run co-operatively and all workers receive the same wage. Important management decisions are taken democratically by an assembly of all workers, rather than by professional managers.
The proliferation of these "recoveries" has led to the formation of a recovered factory movement, which has ties to a diverse political network including Peronists, anarchists and communists. Organizationally, this includes two major federations of recovered factories, the larger Movimiento Nacional de Empresas Recuperadas (or National Movement of Recuperated Businesses, or MNER) on the left and the smaller Movimiento Nacional de Fabricas Recuperadas (National Movement of Recuperated Factories or MNFR) on the right. Some labor unions, unemployed protestors (known as piqueteros), traditional worker cooperatives and a range of political groups have also provided support for these take-overs. In March 2003, with the help of the MNER, former employees of the luxury Hotel Bauen occupied the building and took control of it.
One of the highest difficulties such a movement faces is its relation towards the classic economic system, as most classically managed firms refused, for various reasons (among which ideological hostility to the very principle of autogestion) to work and deal with recovered factories. Thus, isolated recovered factories find it easier to work together in building an alternative economic system and thus manage to reach a critical size and power which enables it to negotiate with the ordinary capitalistic firms.
- ↑ Avi Lewis and Naomi Klein, Zanon on Znet, December 4, 2004 Template:En icon
- ↑ Hugo Moreno, Le désastre argentin. Péronisme, politique et violence sociale (1930-2001), Editions Syllepses, Paris, 2005, p.109 Template:Fr icon
- ↑ Marie Trigona, Recuperated Enterprises in Argentina - Reversing the Logic of Capitalism, Znet, March 27, 2006 Template:En icon
- 1971 Harco work-in
- Ceylon Transport Board
- Direct democracy
- Inclusive Democracy
- Industrial democracy
- Paris Commune of 1871
- Participatory economics
- Popular Education
- Socialist Party USA
- Socialist Resistance
- Unified Socialist Party (France)
- Worker cooperative
- Workers' control
- Workplace democracy
- Edvard Kardelj
- Argentinian workers preparing to defend control of factory, April 26, 2005
- La Economía de los Trabajadores: Autogestión y Distribución de la Riqueza - The Workers' Economy: Self-Management and the Distribution of Wealth (A thorough list of papers (some are downloadable as PDFs) delivered at an international conference on self-management in Buenos Aires, Argentina, July 19-20, 2007, hosted by the University of Buenos Aires, Faculty of Philosophy and Letters. In Spanish and English.)
- THE NEW RESISTANCE IN ARGENTINA, by Yeidy Rosa
- Self-management and Requirements for Social Property: Lessons from Yugoslavia by Diane Flaherty
- Worker self-management in historical perspective by James Petras and Henry Veltmeyer
- Yugoslavia: Trouble in the Halfway House by Melvin D. Barger
- The Mondragón Corporation, probably the world's largest self-managed enterprise
- Solidarity Economy: economic democracy theory and analysis
- Movimiento Nacional de Fabricas Recuperadas (National Movement of Recovered Factories, Spanish only)
- Movimiento Nacional de Empresas Recuperadas (National Movement of Recovered Enterprises, Spanish only)
- Guia de Empresas Recuperadas (a partial directory of recovered enterprises in Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay and Venezuela; Spanish and Portuguese only)
- Recuperated Enterprises in Argentina: Reversing the Logic of Capitalism (article in English on the recuperated enterprises)
- The Worker-Recovered Enterprises in Argentina:The Political and Socioeconomic Challenges of Self-Management Andrés Ruggeri, University of Buenos Aires, Argentina
- Argentina’s Worker-Recovered Enterprises Movement by Marcelo Vieta (introductory article in English on the recuperated enterprises)
- Official site for El Cambio Silencioso, book on recovered factories by Esteban Magnani (Spanish and English mostly)ar:إدارة العمال الذاتية
br:Emveradur ca:Autogestió de:Kollektive Selbstverwaltung eo:Memzorgismo es:Empresa de autogestión eu:Autogestio fr:Autogestion he:ניהול עצמי (עבודה) pl:Samorząd pt:Autogestão sv:Självförvaltning tr:Özyönetim ja:自主管理 zh:工人自治